• Your Paper Your Way
• Introduction
• Contact details
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest
• Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing
• Submission form
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of funding sources
• Open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Peer review
• Essential title page information-separate document from rest of manuscript per Double Blind Review
• Highlights
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video and audio clips
• Supplemental materials
• Research data
• Research Elements
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Permissions
• Letters to the Editor

Your Paper Your Way

All initial submissions to JCF can be submitted in any format.Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article. Please review the Double Blind Peer Review section of these instructions for further direction.


The Journal of Cardiac Failure (JCF) publishes the highest quality science in the field of heart failure with a focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion, mentorship, multidisciplinary partnerships, and patient-centeredness. Published papers span original investigator-initiated work to state-of-the-art reviews, guidelines and scientific statements, expert perspectives, early career and trainee spotlight pieces, patient and patient-partner narratives. JCF also emphasizes the power of language and prioritizes innovative approaches to dissemination of published work to reach and impact the broader heart failure community.

Please review the SUBMISSIONS section of these instructions to review all Paper Categories.

We request that all manuscripts be submitted online at

Double Blind Peer Reviews:

JCF utilizes Double Blind Peer Review, where the identities of both reviewers and authors are concealed from each other throughout the review. To facilitate this, authors must ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in such a way that they do not reveal their identities to reviewers, either directly or indirectly.

We ask authors to do their best to ensure that the following items are present in their submission and are provided as separate files:

1. Title page

The title page will remain separate from the manuscript throughout the peer review process and will not be sent to the reviewers. It should include:

The manuscript title

All authors' names and affiliations

A complete address for the corresponding author, including an e-mail address


Conflict of interest statement

2. Anonymised manuscript

Please remove any identifying information, such as authors' names or affiliations, from your manuscript before submission.

As well as removing names and affiliations under the title within the manuscript, other steps need to be taken to ensure the manuscript is correctly prepared for double-blind peer review. The key points to consider are:

Use the third person to refer to work the authors have previously published. For example, write "Black and Hart (2015) have demonstrated" rather than "we/the authors have previously demonstrated (Black and Hart, 2015)".

Make sure that figures and tables do not contain any reference to author affiliations Exclude acknowledgements and any references to funding sources. Use the title page, which is not sent to reviewers, to detail these and to declare any potential conflicts of interest to the editor.

Choose file names with care,and ensure that the file's "properties" are also anonymised. If using Microsoft Office 2007 or later, consider using the Document Inspector Tool prior to submission.

Take care to ensure that you do not inadvertently upload identifying information within any of the files that will be shared with reviewers. All file types except title page, cover letter and LaTeX source files are typically included in the version of your manuscript shared with reviewers.

Inclusive Language:

We request that manuscript submissions use sensitive and respectful language. Brief examples are listed below however authors should go to APA Bias-Free Language guidelines for a full view of preferred language. In general, ask how someone prefers to be identified.

Instead of Try using
The elderly; elderly people Older people; persons 65 years and older, older adulthood
Afro-American people; Oriental; Indians; Hispanics/Latinos; White or non-White; minorities Black; ?Asian? for people from Asia; ?Asian American? for people of Asian descent in North America, or be more specific by providing nation and region of origin (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, etc.); ?Hispanic? and ?Latinx? (or Latino, etc.) have different meanings; use a precise nationality if possible; Use parallel terms, especially in table labels. ?Non-White? implies a standard of comparison and is imprecise
Him, her, she, he; Man; Gendered; Transgender(s) as a noun, transgendered; Mankind Person, individual; Gender; They; Transgender person; People, human beings, humanity, first-in-human
Inner city; Disinvested; Disadvantaged; Distressed neighborhoods; Working poor; Homeless people Under-resourced; Low-opportunity; Neighborhoods with high poverty rates; Neighborhoods with access to fewer opportunities;
Sufferer; Suffering from; Heart Failure Patient Survivor; Living with, being treated for; Person with heart failure

We also ask authors to consider that pre-specifying subgroup analyses of study endpoints are clear across diverse patients. While we recognize that not all submissions will have adequate means for these analyses, their inclusion supports progress on prioritizing diversity. We prioritize clinical research and patient perspective across the age spectrum from pediatric through geriatrics.

We emphasize the importance of incorporating the patient voice and perspective into manuscripts. We request that all Original Research and Review submissions include two "Visual Take-Home" graphics that summarize the research - one for the healthcare professional medical community and one for patients living with heart failure and their communities. We also require a brief lay summary so that the research results can be shared more broadly.

Please review the JCF Diversity Statement prior to submission.

Acceptance of Reviewer Comments from Other Journals - JCF "Court of Appeals"

Authors may submit previous peer review comments from other cardiology journals from which their manuscript has been rejected (as well as responses to these comments) in their initial submission as supplemental materials. These reviews will be considered by the editors in their initial review of the paper. Authors should indicate in their cover letter the inclusion of these reviews.

Figures in Color

Color figures are preferred.

Contact details

Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial Office, [email protected]

Submission Checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• For references where there is a joint publication (for example, The Universal Definition and Classification of Heart Failure), JCF requests that the reference used is for the Journal of Cardiac Failure.
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Human and animal rights

Published research must be in compliance with human studies guidelines and animal welfare regulations. Authors should indicate in the manuscript that human subjects have given informed consent and that the institutional committee on human research has approved the study protocol. This consent statement should appear in the both the disclosure section as well as in the body of the manuscript. Similarly, they should indicate that studies involving experimental animals conform to institutional standards. In addition, authors should note in the body of the text a statement of adherence to guidelines for rigorous report of results, especially regarding methods. This should be in a separate section before References.

Conflict of interest

If a potential conflict exists, its nature should be stated for each author and the information should be outlined in the Disclosure section of the manuscript. When there is a stated potential conflict of interest and the editors consider that it may have relevance to the accompanying paper, a footnote will be added indicating the author(s)' equity interest in or other affiliation with the identified commercial firms.

All potential conflicts of interest must be identified within the text of the manuscript, under the conflicts with interest heading. This includes relationships with pharmaceutical and biomedical device companies or other corporations whose products or services are related to the subject matter of the article. Such relationships include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, equity or stock ownership by authors or family member, membership on a standing advisory council or committee, being on the board of directors or publicly associated with the company or its products. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest could include receipt of honoraria or consulting fees or receiving grants or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: If there are "none" this should be stated in the Disclosure section.

Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing

The below guidance only refers to the writing process, and not to the use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of the research process.

Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should only use these technologies to improve readability and language. Applying the technology should be done with human oversight and control, and authors should carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased. AI and AI-assisted technologies should not be listed as an author or co-author, or be cited as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors.

Authors should disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.

Disclosure instructions
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of Generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.

Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.

This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement.

Submission form

Original works will be accepted with the understanding that they are contributed solely to the Journal of Cardiac Failure, are not under review by another publication, and have not previously been published except in abstract form. Accepted manuscripts become the sole property of the journal and may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the Journal of Cardiac Failure. A form stating that the authors transfer all copyright ownership to the journal will be sent from the publisher when the manuscript is accepted.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.


Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.


Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure. Co-first authorship in cases wherein two authors have contributed equally is permitted.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. These are in consistent with ICMJE standards, which can be found at

Paper Submitted by Editors of Journal of Cardiac Failure

To ensure that manuscripts receive unbiased evaluation, it is the Journal's policy that papers in which the Editor in Chief, Deputy Editor or an Associate Editor at Journal of Cardiac Failure is an author will be assigned to a Guest Editor. Papers that are handled by a Guest Editor will include a statement at the bottom of the article.

The corresponding author should indicate in the cover letter if an Editor from Journal of Cardiac Failure is a co-author to the manuscript.

Individuals that have any conflicts of interest relating to the peer review and decision-making process are excluded from the process.


For Original Research Papers to be considered for expedited review, they should report important original findings of high-potential clinical impact or research significance. Authors should request expedited review and the rationale for this request in their cover letter at the time of submission. The editors commit to a decision regarding suitability for expedited publication processing within 2 days, and an initial decision within 10 days. Those manuscripts not deemed appropriate for the expedited publication track will be considered according to the standard review process. JCF will inform authors whether the journal will be able to offer expedited review. An agreement to provide expedited review does not guarantee acceptance.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service

This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of funding sources

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to describe briefly the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Manuscripts should be written in good English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Informed Consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

By submitting an article to the journal, all authors of the submission agree to receive emails from JCF regarding the manuscript, including editorial queries while the manuscript is under review and emails from the publisher should the paper be accepted for publication. The contact information provided by the corresponding author will be included in the galley proofs, the published PDF version of the manuscript, and the online version of the manuscript.


The Journal of Cardiac Failure uses an online, electronic submission system. By accessing the website authors will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. When submitting a manuscript to Editorial Manager, authors need to provide an electronic version of their manuscript. For this purpose original source files, not PDF files, are preferred. The author should specify a category designation for the manuscript (original investigation, review article, brief communication, etc.) and choose a set of classifications from the prescribed list provided online. Once the submission files are uploaded, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

New Submissions

The Journal of Cardiac Failure accepts the following categories of articles:

Original Research Papers: Original research papers should present original research conducted by the investigators that resulted in reportable findings. Such papers should contribute new information that is important to the field of study. These should not exceed 3500 words (excluding references, tables and figures) and may include up to a maximum of 6 figures and/or tables and up to 30 references. There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions. If you are asked to revise your paper, formatting consistent with layout of typical paper (outlined below in Revised Submissions) will be required. Authors will also be asked at Revision to provide a Visual Take Home graphic and propose content for social media posts.

If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. All figures and tables print in 4-color at no cost to the author.

State-of-the-Art Review Articles: Review papers should focus on a specific topic and review original research on that topic. Authors should summarize the state of current research on a topic, provide analysis and comparison, identify gaps and inconsistencies, and suggest future steps to solve identified problems. Manuscripts should be no more than 5,500 words and may include up to 45-50 references. Figures and tables, if necessary, should be supportive of the text. The JCF editors will consider both invited and uninvited articles.

Methodology and Design Articles: These should not exceed 3500 words (excluding references, tables, and figures) and may include up to a maximum of 6 figures and/or tables and up to 30 references.

Perspectives: This is a commentary on a topical item and may be invited or submitted without invitation These articles should be no more than 1,500 words. One supporting graphic, if needed, may be included. A maximum of 4 references is permitted. A headshot of the author should also be provided at time of submission.

Brief Reports: These are short communications of research findings, including pilot studies, preliminary observations in a small sample of subjects, or reports of novel assessment tools, diagnostic or treatment methodologies, or approaches to health care delivery. (Limits: 1500 words of text, 3 graphics, 8 references) Supplemental materials are not permitted.

Research Letters: Brief communication of preliminary research findings, novel observations, or additional analyses relevant to prior publications in the Journal. (Limits: 750 words of text, 1 graphic, 5 references) Supplemental materials are not permitted.

JCF Ignite!: These are very concise and rigorous reports (less than 750 words) of a novel (potentially provocative) concept, analysis, insight or data presentation. The goal is to enable author(s) to disseminate worthwhile material in an exceptionally timely manner to enhance impactful discourse and consider paradigm shifts in the care of patients with heart failure. We specifically invite new ideas, innovative concepts and favourably disruptive discussions that challenge traditional dogma. We also welcome submissions of very concise data reports (e.g., one table/figure of new secondary data or analyses from a large-scale trial). Submissions in this category will undergo expedited review by a dedicated team of reviewers - in contrast to traditional external review. Authors will receive a decision letter within 7 business days, followed by online publication and broad dissemination on social media within 2 weeks.(Limits: 750 words, 1 graphic, 5 references, 3 authors; abstracts and supplemental material not permitted).

Early Career and Trainee Spotlight: These articles are from the perspective of Trainees and should reflect current issues in heart failure care and trainee experiences. This area considers submissions in 3 areas: Rising Researchers, Narratives in Heart Failure, and Global Perspectives in Heart Failure. More in-depth information of these areas can be found here. These articles should be no more than 1,500 words. One support graphic, if needed, may be included. A maximum of 4 references is permitted. They may be invited or submitted without invitation. A headshot of the author should also be provided at time of submission.

Patient and Caregiver Center: These articles are from patients living with the full spectrum of heart failure, including those that have had heart transplants and LVADs. These perspectives should reflect current issues and care in heart failure. These articles should be no more than 1,500 words. They may be invited or submitted without invitation. A headshot of the author can be provided at time of submission.

Letters to the Editor: A limited number of letters will be published. Letters to the Editor should have no more than 500 words, 5 references, 1 figure/table, and no more than 5 authors. They should focus on a specific article that has appeared in JCF. Letters must be submitted within 3 months of the print issue date of the article. No original data may be included and the cited article should be included as a reference.


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Figures and tables embedded in text

Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of one independent expert reviewer to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.


Use of word processing software

Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection should have a brief heading that appears on a separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply "the text".


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. The Introduction should describe the purpose of the study and its relation to previous work in the field; it should not include an extensive literature review.


Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Authors should also state how they involved patients in the research process (if they did).


Results should be clear and concise and present positive and relevant negative findings of the study, supported when necessary by reference to tables and figures.


The Discussion should interpret the results of the study, with emphasis on their relation to the original hypotheses and to previous studies. The importance of the study and its limitations should also be discussed.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Lay Summary: Researchers are asked to please provide 3 brief bullet points about how their work applies to patients and a brief Lay summary (less than 100 words).

Visual Take Home graphics: These are graphics that summarize the main points of the manuscript. If one of the Figures already provided in your manuscript is a key figure summarizing the major findings, you may designate that figure as the Visual Take Home graphic in the legend. The figure may incorporate multiple panels including key figures or graphics, or short text lists summarizing key points or variables. This illustration must be accompanied by a legend (title and caption). The graphics must be an original image and, for copyright reasons, cannot be adapted or reprinted from another source. This will be required for all Original Research Papers and State of the Art Reviews. These may be requested by the Editors for other paper types as appropriate. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements. There is a cost to authors for using this service All figures provided in color print in 4-color at no cost to the author.

Essential title page information-separate document from rest of manuscript per Double Blind Review

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Include a short title of less than 40 characters.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate correct presentation clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Include academic degrees for each author. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. We request Social Media handles of the authors as well to help promote their published paper.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of review and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A proposed tweet to use to promote your paper if accepted, as well as the social media handles of the authors.


Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).


A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. The abstract should be no more than 200 words. The structured headings to include are as follows: Background, Methods and Results, and Conclusions. In the Background section, describe the rationale for the study. In Methods and Results, briefly describe the methods and present the significant results. In Conclusions, state succinctly the interpretation of the data.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 4 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be used. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in the field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section on the title page, as indicated in the above instructions for the separate title page. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.


Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Tables should be comprehensible without reference to the text and should not be repetitive of descriptions in the text. Every table should consist of two or more columns; tables with only one column will be treated as lists and incorporated into the text. Cite all tables in the text, number them in order of appearance, and provide a short heading. Each table submitted should be double-spaced, each on its own page. Explanatory matter and source notations for borrowed tables should be placed in the table footnote.


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication". Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL and the date when the reference was last accessed should be given if known, DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc., should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Reference formatting

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style

References should be double-spaced in numerical sequence according to standard Vancouver style, using Index Medicus abbreviations for journal titles. The first 6 authors should be listed in each reference citation (if there are more than 6 authors, "et al" should be used following the sixth). Periods are not used in author's initials or journal abbreviations.

Journal Article
Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friedl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood leukemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006-12.
Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.
Chapter in Edited Book
Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH,Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the list of title word abbreviations:

Video and audio clips

Electronic publication permits the display of dynamic images: Illustrations that show inherently moving information may be presented as video clips submitted as MPG, MOV, AVI, or GIF files. The authors should verify that all video clips take less than a minute to load and that they play properly. To limit the loading time the clips should preferably contain only one cardiac cycle and the file size should be less than 1.5 megabytes. Slightly larger clips are permissible with 3-D images.

Supplemental materials

Supplemental materials - documents, tables, figures, audio clips, and video clips - may be submitted to appear online only. Such content should be cited consecutively within the text. These materials will not be copyedited, typeset, or altered in any way by the publisher. Text and tables must be provided as PDFs.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Research Elements

This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in a Research Elements journal.

Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.

During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a manuscript to one of the Research Elements journals.

More information can be found on the Research Elements page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string assigned by the publisher upon initial electronic publication. Because the assigned DOI never changes, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly "articles in press," because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post), or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will be considered at this stage only with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Once an article has been published online as an article in press, no further corrections can be made except by publishing an erratum or corrigendum, and then only with the editor's approval. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


To use tables or figures borrowed from another source, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder, usually the publisher. Authors are responsible for applying for permission for both print and electronic rights for all borrowed materials and are responsible for paying any fees related to the applications of these permissions. This is necessary even if you are an author of the borrowed material. It is essential to begin the process of obtaining permission early; a delay may require removing the copyrighted material from the article. Give the source of a borrowed table in a footnote and of a borrowed figure in the legend. Use the exact wording required by the copyright holder. E-mail a copy of the letter granting permission, identified by table or figure number, along with the manuscript. Abbreviations should appear in parentheses immediately after the term first appears in the text.

Letters to the Editor

The editor invites brief letters commenting on papers appearing in the journal and on other issues.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.