Advertisement

HFSA guidelines for management of patients with heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction—pharmacological approaches

  • Heart Failure Society Of America
    Correspondence
    Single reprints are available by faxing a request to 612-624-2174 or writing to HFSA, Box 358, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. To purchase multiple reprints call or fax a request to WB Saunders (tel: 215-238-5534; fax: 215-238-6423).
    Affiliations
    Heart Failure Society of America, Inc., Minneapolis, MinnesotaUSA
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Cardiac Failure
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • American Heart Association
        1998 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update.
        in: American Heart Association, Dallas, TX1997
        • Ho KKL
        • Pinsky JL
        • Kannel WB
        • Levy D
        The epidemiology of heart failure: the Framingham Study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22 (suppl): 6A-13A
        • Eriksson H
        Heart failure: a growing public health problem.
        J Intern Med. 1995; 237: 135-141
        • Massie BM
        • Shah NB
        Evolving trends in the epidemiologic factors of heart failure: rationale for preventive strategies and comprehensive disease management.
        Am Heart J. 1997; 133: 703-712
        • Ghali JK
        • Cooper R
        • Ford E
        Trends in hospitalization rates for heart failure in the United States, 1973–1986: evidence for increasing population prevalence.
        Arch Intern Med. 1990; 150: 769-773
        • Graves EJ
        National hospital discharge survey: annual summary, 1993.
        in: 8th edition. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 13: data from National Health Survey. 121. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC1995: 1-63
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Cerebrovascular disease mortality and Medicare hospitalization-United States, 1980–1990.
        MMWR. 1992; 41: 477-480
        • Adams KF
        • Zannad F
        Clinical definition of advanced heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 1998; 135: S204-S215
        • O'Connell JB
        • Bristow MR
        Economic impact of heart failure in the United States: time for a different approach.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994; 13: S107-S112
        • Packer M
        How should physicians view heart failure?.
        in: The philosophical and physiological evolution of three conceptual models of the disease. 8th edition. Am J Cardiol. 71. 1993: 3C-11C (suppl)
        • Cohn JN
        Vasodilator therapy for heart failure: the influence of impedance on left ventricular performance.
        Circulation. 1973; 48: 5-8
        • Francis GS
        • Goldsmith SR
        • Levine TB
        • Olivari MT
        • Cohn JN
        The neurohormonal axis in congestive heart failure.
        Ann Intern Med. 1984; 101: 370-377
        • Packer M
        The neurohormonal hypothesis: a theory to explain the mechanism of disease progression in heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 248-254
        • Pfeffer MA
        • Braunwald E
        Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction: experimental observations and clinical implications.
        Circulation. 1990; 81: 1161-1172
        • Cohn JN
        Structural basis for heart failure: ventricular remodeling and its pharmacologic inhibition.
        Circulation. 1995; 91: 2504-2507
        • Eichhorn EJ
        • Bristow MR
        Medical therapy can improve the biological properties of the chronically failing heart: a new era in the treatment of heart failure.
        Circulation. 1996; 94: 2285-2296
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Bonow RO
        Chronic heart failure in the United States: a manifestation of coronary artery disease.
        Circulation. 1998; 97: 282-289
        • Konstam MA
        • Dracup K
        • Baker D
        • Bottorff M
        • Brooks NH
        • Dacey RA
        • Dunbar SB
        • Jackson A
        • Jessup M
        • Johnson JC
        • Jones RH
        • Luchi RJ
        • Massie BM
        • Pitt B
        • Rose EA
        • Rubin LJ
        • Wright RF
        • Hadorn DC
        Heart failure: evaluation and care of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
        Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD1994
        • ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines
        Guidelines for the evaluation and management of heart failure.
        Circulation. 1995; 92: 2764-2784
        • Task Force of the Working Group for Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology
        The treatment of heart failure.
        Eur Heart J. 1997; 18: 736-753
        • Packer M
        • Cohn JN
        • on behalf of the Steering Committee and Membership of the Advisory Council to
        • Improve Outcomes Nationwide in Heart Failure
        Consensus recommendations for the management of chronic heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83 (suppl): 1A-38A
        • Eichhorn EJ
        • Bristow MR
        Practical guidelines for initiation of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with chronic heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 1997; 79: 794-798
        • Sackner-Bernstein JD
        • Mancini DM
        Rationale for treatment of patients with chronic heart failure with adrenergic blockade.
        JAMA. 1995; 274: 1462-1467
        • Swedberg K
        • Hjalmarson A
        • Waagstein F
        • Wallentin I
        Prolongation of survival in congestive cardiomyopathy by beta-receptor blockade.
        in: Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. 8th edition. Lancet. 1. 1979: 374-376
        • Lechat P
        • Packer M
        • Chalon S
        • Cucherat M
        • Arab T
        • Biossel JP
        Clinical effects of beta-adrenergic blockade in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials.
        Circulation. 1998; 98: 1184-1191
        • Heidenreich PA
        • Lee TT
        • Massie BM
        Effect of beta-blockade on mortality in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30: 27-34
        • Packer M
        • Bristow MR
        • Cohn JN
        • Colucci WS
        • Fowler MB
        • Gilbert EM
        • Shusterman NH
        The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1349-1355
        • CIBIS Investigators and Committees
        The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomized trial of beta-blockade in heart failure.
        Lancet. 1999; 353: 9-13
        • MERIT-HF Study Group
        Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF).
        Lancet. 1999; 353: 2001-2007
        • Waagstein F
        • Bristow MR
        • Swedberg K
        • Camerini F
        • Fowler MB
        • Silver MA
        • Gilbert EM
        • Johnson MR
        • Goss FG
        • Hjalmarson A
        Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Lancet. 1993; 342: 1441-1446
        • The International Steering Committee
        Rationale, design, and organization of the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF).
        Am J Cardiol. 1997; 80 (suppl): 54J-58J
        • CIBIS Investigators and Committees
        A randomized trial of beta-blockade in heart failure: the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS).
        Circulation. 1994; 90: 1765-1773
        • Packer M
        • Colucci WS
        • Sackner-Bernstein JD
        • Liang CS
        • Goldscher DA
        • Freeman I
        • Kukin ML
        • Kinhal V
        • Udelson JE
        • Klapholz M
        • Gottlieb SS
        • Pearle D
        • Cody RJ
        • Gregory JJ
        • Kantrowitz NE
        • Lejemtel TH
        • Young ST
        • Lukas MA
        • Shusterman NH
        Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of carvedilol in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.
        in: The PRECISE Trial. 8th edition. Circulation. 94. 1996: 2793-2799
        • Bristow MR
        • Gilbert EM
        • Abraham WT
        • Adams KF
        • Fowler MB
        • Hershberger RE
        • Kubo SH
        • Narahara KA
        • Ingersoll H
        • Krueger S
        • Young S
        • Shusterman N
        Carvedilol produces dose-related improvements in left ventricular function and survival in subjects with chronic heart failure.
        Circulation. 1996; 94: 2807-2816
        • Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Group
        Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease.
        Lancet. 1997; 349: 375-380
        • The SOLVD Investigators
        Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development on heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 685-691
        • Krum H
        • Gu A
        • Wilshire-Clement M
        • Sackner-Bernstein J
        • Goldsmith R
        • Medina N
        • Yushak M
        • Miller M
        • Packer M
        Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the long-term efficacy of carvedilol in patients with severe chronic heart failure.
        Circulation. 1995; 92: 1499-1506
        • Cohn JN
        • Fowler MB
        • Bristow MR
        • Colucci WS
        • Gilbert EM
        • Kinhal V
        • Krueger SK
        • Lejemtel T
        • Narahara KA
        • Packer M
        • Young ST
        • Holcslaw TL
        • Lukas MA
        • for the US Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group
        Safety and efficacy of carvedilol in severe heart failure.
        J Card Fail. 1997; 3 (The U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group): 173-179
        • Waagstein F
        • Caidahl K
        • Wallentin I
        • Bergh CH
        • Hjalmarson A
        Long-term beta-blockade in dilated cardiomyopathy: effects of short-term and long-term metoprolol followed by withdrawal and readministration of metoprolol.
        Circulation. 1989; 80: 551-563
        • Morimoto S
        • Shimizu K
        • Yamada K
        • Hiramitsu S
        • Hishida H
        Can beta-blocker therapy be withdrawn form patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Am Heart J. 1999; 137: 456-459
        • Uretsky BF
        • Pina I
        • Quigg RJ
        • Brill JV
        • MacInerney EJ
        • Mintzer R
        • Armstrong PW
        Beyond drug therapy: non-pharmacologic care of the patient with advanced heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 1998; 135 (suppl): S264-S284
        • The Digitals Investigation Group
        The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 525-533
        • Uretsky BF
        • Young JB
        • Shahidi FE
        • Yellen LG
        • Harrison MC
        • Jolly MK
        Randomized study assessing the effect of digoxin withdrawal in patients with mild to moderate chronic congestive heart failure: results of the PROVED trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22: 955-962
        • Packer M
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Young JB
        • Constantini PJ
        • Adams KF
        • Cody RJ
        • Smith LK
        • Van Voorhees L
        • Gourley LA
        • Jolly MK
        Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 1-7
        • Young JB
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Uretsky BF
        • Patterson JH
        • Adams KF
        Superiority of “triple” drug therapy in heart failure: insights from the PROVED and RADIANCE trials.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 32: 686-692
        • Adams KF
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Uretsky BF
        • Patterson JH
        • Schwartz TA
        • Young JB
        Clinical benefits of low serum digoxin concentrations in heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33 (abstract): 185A
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Pitt B
        Digitalis investigation group (DIG) trial: a stimulus for further research.
        Am Heart J. 1997; 134: 3-12
        • Glaxo Wellcome, Inc
        Lanoxin: Package Insert.
        Glaxo Wellcome, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC1997
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Ferguson D
        Digoxin: a neurohormonal modulator in heart failure?.
        Circulation. 1991; 84: 2181-2186
        • Ferguson DW
        • Berg WJ
        • Sanders JS
        • Roach PJ
        • Kempf JS
        • Kienzle MG
        Sympathoinhibitory responses to digitalis glycosides in heart failure patients: direct evidence from sympathetic neural recordings.
        Circulation. 1989; 80: 65-77
        • Krum H
        • Bigger JT
        • Goldsmith RL
        • Packer M
        Effect of long-term digoxin therapy on autonomic function in patients with chronic heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25: 289-294
        • Adams KF
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Uretsky BF
        • Young JB
        • Ahmed S
        • Tomasko L
        • Packer M
        Patients with mild heart failure worsen during withdrawal from digoxin therapy.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30: 42-48
        • The Captopril Multicenter Research Group
        Comparative effects of therapy with captopril and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure.
        JAMA. 1988; 259: 539-544
        • Dibianco R
        • Shabetai R
        • Kostuk W
        • Moran J
        • Schlant RC
        • Wright R
        A comparison of oral milrinone, digoxin, and their combination in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 677-683
        • Gheorghiade M
        • Hall VB
        • Jacobsen G
        • Alam M
        • Rosman H
        • Goldstein S
        Effects of increasing maintenance dose of digoxin on left ventricular function and neurohormones in patients with chronic heart failure treated with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
        Circulation. 1995; 92: 1801-1817
        • Newton GE
        • Tong JH
        • Schofield AM
        • Baines AD
        • Floras JS
        • Parker JD
        Digoxin reduces cardiac sympathetic activity in severe congestive heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28: 155-161
        • Slatton ML
        • Irani WN
        • Hall SA
        • Marcoux LG
        • Page RL
        • Grayburn PA
        • Eichhorn EJ
        Does digoxin provide additional hemodynamic and autonomic benefit at higher doses in patients with mild to moderate heart failure and normal sinus rhythm?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 29: 1206-1213
        • Zarowitz BJ
        • Gheorghiade M
        Optimal heart rate control for patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: are pharmacologic choices truly changing?.
        Am Heart J. 1992; 123: 1401-1403
        • Sbarouni E
        • Bradshaw A
        • Andreotti F
        • Tuddenham E
        • Oakley CM
        • Cleland JG
        Relationship between hemostatic abnormalities and neuroendocrine activity in heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 1994; 127: 607-612
        • Jafri SM
        • Ozawa T
        • Mammen E
        • Levine TB
        • Johnson C
        • Goldstein S
        Platelet function, thrombin and fibrinolytic activation in patients with heart failure.
        Eur Heart J. 1993; 14: 205-212
        • Yamamoto K
        • Ikeda U
        • Furuhashi K
        • Irokawa M
        • Nakayama TM
        • Shimada K
        The coagulation system is activated in idiopathic cardiomyopathy.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25: 1634-1640
        • Fuster V
        • Gersh B
        • Giuliani E
        • Tajik AJ
        • Brandenburg RO
        • Frye RL
        The natural history of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Am J Cardiol. 1981; 47: 525-530
        • Dunkman WB
        • Johnson GR
        • Carson PE
        • Bhat G
        • Farrell L
        • Cohn J
        • for the V-HeFT Cooperative Studies Group
        Incidence of thromboembolic events in congestive heart failure.
        Circulation. 1993; 87: VI-94–101
        • Ciaccherie M
        • Castelli Q
        • Cecchi F
        • Nannini M
        • Santoro G
        • Troiani V
        • Zuppiroli A
        • Dolara A
        Lack of correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross-sectional echocardiography and systemic emboli in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Br Heart J. 1989; 62: 26-29
        • Kyrle P
        • Korninger C
        • Gossinger H
        • et al.
        Prevention of arterial pulmonary embolism by oral anticoagulants in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Thromb Haemost. 1985; 54: 521-523
        • Laupacis A
        • Albers G
        • Dalen J
        • Dunn MI
        • Jacobson AK
        • Singer DE
        Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation.
        Chest. 1998; 114 (suppl): 579S-589S
        • Natterson PD
        • Stevenson WG
        • Saxon LA
        • Middlekauff HR
        • Stevenson LW
        Risk of arterial embolization in 224 patients awaiting cardiac transplantation.
        Am Heart J. 1995; 129: 564-570
        • Loh E
        • Sutton MS
        • Wun CC
        • Rouleau JL
        • Flaker GC
        • Gottlieb SS
        • Lamas GA
        • Moye LA
        • Goldhaber SZ
        • Pfeffer MA
        Ventricular dysfunction predicts stroke following myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 251-257
        • Dries DL
        • Rosenberg Y
        • Waclawiw M
        • Domanski M
        Ejection fraction and risk of thromboembolic events in patients with systolic dysfunction and sinus rhythm: evidence for gender differences in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction trials.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 29: 1074-1080
        • Al-Khadra AS
        • Salem DN
        • Rand WM
        • Udelson JE
        • Smith JJ
        • Konstam MA
        Warfarin anticoagulation and survival: a cohort analysis from the studies of left ventricular dysfunction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 31: 749-753
        • Smith P
        • Arnesen H
        • Holme I
        The effect of warfarin on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 147-152
        • Cairns JA
        • Gent M
        • Singer J
        • Finnie KJ
        • Froggatt GM
        • Holder DA
        • Jablonsky G
        • Kostuk WJ
        • Melendez LJ
        • Myers MG
        Aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, or both in unstable angina.
        N Engl J Med. 1985; 313: 1369-1375
        • Collins R
        • Peto R
        • Baigent C
        • Sleight P
        Aspirin, heparin and fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 847-860
        • ISIS-2 Collaborative Group
        Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2.
        Lancet. 1988; 2: 349-360
        • Antiplatelet Trialist's Collaboration
        Collaborative overview of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy-I.
        in: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. 8th edition. BMJ. 308. 1994: 81-106
        • Al-Khadra AS
        • Salem DN
        • Rand WM
        • Udelson JE
        • Smith JJ
        • Konstam MA
        Antiplatelet agents and survival: a cohort analysis from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 31: 419-425
        • Nguyen KN
        • Aursnes I
        • Kjekshus J
        Interaction between enalapril and aspirin on mortality after acute myocardial infarction: subgroup analysis of the Cooperative New Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study II (CONSENSUS II).
        Am J Cardiol. 1997; 79: 115-119
        • Peterson JG
        • Lauer MS
        • Young JB
        • Sapp S
        • Califf RM
        • Topol EJ
        Evidence for an adverse interaction between ACE inhibitors and aspirin following myocardial infarction: the GUSTO-I Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 31 (Abstract): 96A
        • Leor J
        • Reicher-Reiss H
        • Goldbour U
        • Boyko V
        • Gottlieb S
        • Battler A
        • Behar S
        Aspirin and mortality in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33: 1920-1925
        • Nawarskas JJ
        • Spinler SA
        Does aspirin interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension or congestive heart failure?.
        Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 18: 1041-1052
        • Hall D
        • Zeitler H
        • Rudolph W
        Counteraction of the vasodilator effects of enalapril by aspirin in severe heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 1549-1555
        • Oosterga M
        • Anthonio RL
        • de Kam PJ
        • Kingma JH
        • Crijns HJ
        • van Gilst WH
        Effects of aspirin on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and left ventricular dilation one year after acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1998; 81: 1178-1181
        • Sharis PJ
        • Cannon CP
        • Loscalzo J
        The antiplatelet effects of ticlopidine and clopidogrel.
        Ann Intern Med. 1998; 129: 394-405
        • CAPRIE Steering Committee
        A randomized, blinded trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 1329-1339
        • Spaulding C
        • Charbonnier B
        • Cohen-Solal A
        • Juilliere Y
        • Kromer EP
        • Benhamda K
        • Cador R
        • Weber S
        Acute hemodynamic interaction of aspirin and ticlopidine with enalapril: results of a double-blind, randomized comparative trial.
        Circulation. 1998; 98: 757-765
        • Pitt B
        • Konstam MA
        Overview of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
        Am J Cardiol. 1998; 82 (suppl): 47S-49S
        • Crozier J
        • Ikram H
        • Awan N
        • Cleland J
        • Stephen N
        • Dickstein K
        • Frey M
        • Young J
        • Klinger G
        • Makris L
        • Rucinska E
        • for the Losartan Hemodynamic Study Group
        Losartan in heart failure: hemodynamic effects and tolerability.
        Circulation. 1995; 91: 691-697
        • Dickstein K
        • Chang P
        • Willenheimer R
        • Haunso S
        • Remes J
        • Hall C
        • Kjekshus J
        Comparison of the effects of losartan and enalapril on clinical status and exercise performance in patients with moderate or severe heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 26: 438-445
        • Pitt B
        • Segal R
        • Martinez FA
        • Meurers G
        • Cowley AJ
        • Thomas I
        • Deedwania PC
        • Ney DE
        • Snavely DB
        • Chang PI
        Randomized trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (ELITE).
        Lancet. 1997; 349: 747-751
        • Pitt B
        • Poole-Wilson P
        • Segal R
        • Martinez FA
        • Dickstein K
        • Camm AJ
        • Konstam MA
        • Riegger G
        • Klinger GH
        • Neaton J
        • Sharma D
        • Thiyagarajan B
        Effects of losartan versus captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the patients in the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study (ELITE II).
        J Card Fail. 1999; 5: 146-154
        • Pitt B
        • Poole-Wilson P
        Presentation at the American Heart Association 72nd Scientific Session, Atlanta, GANovember 1999
        • Yusuf S
        • Maggioni AP
        • Held P
        • Rouleau JL
        Effects of candesartan, enalapril, or their combinations on exercise capacity, ventricular function, clinical deterioration, and quality of life in heart failure: Randomized Evaluation of Strategies for Left Ventricular Dysfunction (RESOLVD).
        Circulation. 1997; 96 (abstract): 1-452
        • Granger CB
        • Ertl G
        • Kuch J
        • McMurray J
        • Rouleau JL
        • Swedberg K
        • Young JB
        • Yusuf S
        • Held P
        • Pfeffer MA
        • on behalf of the SPICE Investigators
        A randomized trial evaluating tolerance to candesartan cilexitil in patients with congestive heart failure and intolerance to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33 (Abstract): 189A
        • Hamroff G
        • Katz SD
        • Mancini D
        • Blaufarb I
        • Bijou R
        • Patel R
        • Jondeau G
        • Olivari MT
        • Thomas S
        • Lejemtel TH
        Addition of angiotensin II receptor blockade to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves exercise capacity in patients with severe heart failure.
        Circulation. 1999; 99: 990-992
        • Flaker GC
        • Blackshear JL
        • McBride R
        • Kronmal RA
        • Halperin JL
        • Hart RG
        Antiarrhythmic drug therapy and cardiac mortality in atrial fibrillation.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 527-532
        • Echt DS
        • Liebson PR
        • Mitchell LB
        • Peters RW
        • Obiasmanno D
        • Barker AH
        • Arensberg D
        • Baker A
        • Friedman L
        • Greene HL
        • Huther ML
        • Richardson DW
        • CAST Investigators
        Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo.
        in: The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. 8th edition. N Engl J Med. 324. 1991: 781-788
        • Waldo AL
        • Camm AJ
        • deruyter H
        • Freidman PLF
        • MacNeil DJ
        • Pauls JF
        • Pitt B
        • Pratt CM
        • Schwartz PJ
        • Veltri EP
        • for the SWORD Investigators
        Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 7-12
        • Bloch-Thompsen PE
        • for the DIAMOND-MI Investigators presented at the 70th Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association
        Danish investigation of arrhythmia and mortality on dofetilide.
        Clin Cardiol. 1998; 21 (Abstract): 52-54
        • Doval HC
        • Nul DR
        • Grencelli HO
        • Perrone SV
        • Bortman GR
        • Curiel R
        • for the GESICA Investigators
        Randomized trial of low-dose amiodarone in severe congestive heart failure.
        Lancet. 1994; 344: 493-498
        • Singh SN
        • Fletcher RD
        • Fisher SG
        • Singh BN
        • Lewis HD
        • Deedwania PC
        • Massie BM
        • Colling C
        • Lazzeri D
        • for the CHF-STAT Investigators
        Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia.
        N Engl J Med. 1995; 33: 77-82
        • Julian DG
        • Camm AJ
        • Frangin G
        • Janse MJ
        • Munoz A
        • Schwartz PJ
        • Simon P
        • for the EMIAT Investigators
        Randomized trial of effect of amiodarone on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent myocardial infarction.
        Lancet. 1997; 349: 667-674
        • Cairns JA
        • Connolly SI
        • Roberts R
        • Gent M
        • for the CAMIAT Investigators
        Randomized trial of outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with frequent or repetitive ventricular premature depolarizations.
        Lancet. 1997; 349: 675-682
        • Amiodarone Trials Meta-Analysis Investigators
        Effect of prophylactic amiodarone on mortality after acute myocardial infarction and in congestive heart failure: meta-analysis of individual data from 6,500 patients in randomized trials.
        Lancet. 1997; 350: 1417-1424
        • Moss AJ
        • Hall WJ
        • Cannon DS
        • Daubert JP
        • Higgins SL
        • Klein H
        • Levine JH
        • Saksena S
        • Waldo AL
        • Wilber D
        • Brown MW
        • Heo M
        • for the MADIT Investigators
        Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 1933-1940
        • AVID Investigators
        A comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 1576-1583
        • Cappato R
        Secondary prevention of sudden death: The Dutch Study, the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillator Trial, the Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg, and the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study.
        Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83 (suppl): 68D-73D
        • Moss AJ
        • Cannon DS
        • Daubert JP
        • Hall WJ
        • Higgins SL
        • Klein H
        • Wilber D
        • Zareba W
        • Brown WU
        • for the MADITT II Investigators
        Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADITT II): design and clinical protocol.
        Ann Noninv Electrocardiol. 1999; 4: 83-91
        • Klein H
        • Auricchio A
        • Reek S
        • Geller C
        New primary prevention trials of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: SCD-HEFT and MADIT-II.
        Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83 (suppl): 91D-97D
        • Laragh JH
        Hormones and the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure: vasopression, aldosterone, and angiotensin II: further evidence for a renal adrenal interaction from studies of hypertension and cirrhosis.
        Circulation. 1962; 25: 1015-1022
        • Dzau VJ
        • Colucci WS
        • Hollenberg NK
        • Williams GH
        Relation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to clinical state in congestive heart failure.
        Circulation. 1981; 63: 645-651
        • Wang W
        Chronic administration of aldosterone depresses baroreceptor reflex function in the dog.
        Hypertension. 1994; 24: 571-575
        • Weber KT
        • Brilla CG
        Pathological hypertrophy and cardiac interstitium: fibrosis and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
        Circulation. 1991; 83: 1849-1865
        • Duprez DA
        • De Buyzere ML
        • Rietzschel ER
        • Taes Y
        • Clement DL
        • Morgan D
        • Cohn JN
        Inverse relationship between aldosterone and large artery compliance in chronically treated heart failure patients.
        Eur Heart J. 1998; 19: 1371-1376
        • Okubo S
        • Niimura F
        • Nishimura H
        • Takemoto F
        • Fogo A
        • Matsusaka T
        • Ichikawa I
        Angiotensin-independent mechanism for aldosterone synthesis during chronic extracellular fluid volume depletion.
        J Clin Invest. 1997; 99: 855-860
        • Struthers AD
        Aldosterone escape during angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor therapy in chronic heart failure.
        J Card Fail. 1996; 2: 47-54
        • The RALES Investigators
        Effectiveness of spironolactone added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a loop diuretic for severe chronic congestive heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 1996; 78: 902-907
        • Pitt B
        • Zannad F
        • Remme WJ
        • Cody R
        • Castaigne A
        • Perez A
        • Palensky J
        • Wittes J
        The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 709-717
        • Aretz HT
        • Billingham ME
        • Edwards WD
        • Factor SM
        • Fallon JT
        • Fenoglio Jr., JJ
        • Olsen EG
        • Schoen FJ
        Myocarditis: a histopathologic definition and classification.
        Am J Cardiovasc Pathol. 1987; 1: 3-14
        • Dec GW
        • Palacios IF
        • Fallon JT
        • Aretz HT
        • Mills J
        • Lee DC
        • Johnson RA
        Active myocarditis in the spectrum of acute dilated cardiomyopathies: clinical features, histologic correlates, and clinical outcome.
        N Eng J Med. 1985; 312: 885-890
        • Vignola PA
        • Aonuma K
        • Swaye PS
        • Rozanski JJ
        • Blankstein RL
        • Benson J
        • Gosselin AJ
        • Lister JW
        Lymphocytic myocarditis presenting as unexplained ventricular arrhythmias: diagnosis with endomyocardial biopsy and response to immunosuppression.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984; 4: 812-819
        • Dec GW
        • Waldman H
        • Southern J
        • Fallon JT
        • Hutter AM
        • Palacios I
        Viral myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 85-89
        • Grogan M
        • Redfield MM
        • Bailey KR
        • Reeder GS
        • Gersh BJ
        • Edwards WD
        • Rodeheffer RJ
        Long-term outcome of patients with biopsy-proved myocarditis: comparison with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 26: 8-14
        • O'Connell JB
        • Mason JW
        Diagnosing and treating active myocarditis.
        West J Med. 1989; 150: 431-435
        • Jones SR
        • Herskowitz A
        • Hutchins GM
        • Baughman KL
        Effects of immunosuppressive therapy in biopsy-proved myocarditis and borderline myocarditis on left ventricular function.
        Am J Cardiol. 1991; 68: 370-376
        • Parillo JE
        • Cunnion RE
        • Epstein SE
        • Parker MM
        • Suffredini AF
        • Brenner M
        • Schaer GL
        • Palmeri ST
        • Cannon 3d, RO
        • Alling D
        • Wittes JT
        • Ferrans VJ
        • Rodriguez ER
        • Fauci AS
        A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of prednisone for dilated cardiomyopathy.
        N Eng J Med. 1989; 321: 1061-1068
        • Latham RD
        • Mulrow JP
        • Virmani R
        • Bobinowitz M
        • Moody JM
        Recently diagnosed idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: incidence of myocarditis and efficacy of prednisone therapy.
        Am Heart J. 1989; 117: 876-881
        • Mason JW
        • O'Connell JB
        • Herskowitz A
        • Rose NR
        • McManus BM
        • Billingham ME
        • Moon TE
        A clinical trial of immunosuppressive therapy for myocarditis.
        N Eng J Med. 1995; 333: 269-275
        • Drucker NA
        • Colan SD
        • Lewis AB
        • Beiser AS
        • Wessel DL
        Gamma-globulin treatment of acute myocarditis in the pediatric population.
        Circulation. 1994; 89: 252-257
        • McNamara DM
        • Rosenblum WD
        • Janosko KM
        • Trost MK
        • Villaneuva FS
        • Demetris AJ
        • Murali S
        • Feldman AM
        Intravenous immune globulin in the therapy of myocarditis and acute cardiomyopathy.
        Circulation. 1997; 95: 2476-2478
        • The Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association
        Nomenclature and criteria for the diagnosis of the heart and great vessels.
        8th edition. Little Brown and Co, Boston, MA1979 (modified to add class IIIa and IIIb)

      Linked Article