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New Biomarkers in Heart Failure: The Bar is High

      Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is the circulating form of uPAR, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored 3-domain receptor protein expressed on immune cells, and correlates with inflammatory states.
      • Hayek S
      • Tahhan A
      • Ko Y
      • Alkhoder A
      • Zheng S
      • Bhimani R
      • Hartsfield J
      • et al.
      Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and outcomes in patients with heart failure.
      Increased suPAR levels are associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and are especially associated with poor outcomes in various disease states, including cardiovascular disease, HIV, chronic kidney disease, and critical illness.
      • Hayek S
      • Tahhan A
      • Ko Y
      • Alkhoder A
      • Zheng S
      • Bhimani R
      • Hartsfield J
      • et al.
      Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and outcomes in patients with heart failure.
      • Hayek SS
      • Sever S
      • Ko Y-A
      • Trachtman H
      • Awad M
      • Wadhwani S
      • et al.
      Soluble urokinase receptor and chronic kidney disease.
      • Hayek SS
      • Leaf DE
      • Samman Tahhan A
      • Raad M
      • Sharma S
      • Waikar SS
      • et al.
      Soluble urokinase receptor and acute kidney injury.
      • Hodges GW
      • Bang CN
      • Wachtell K
      • Eugen-Olsen J
      • Jeppesen JL.
      suPAR: a new biomarker for cardiovascular disease?.
      Whether or not suPAR is useful in predicting risk of heart failure and heart failure outcomes, beyond traditional heart failure biomarkers,
      • Koller L
      • Stojkovic S
      • Richter B
      • Sulzgruber P
      • Potolidis C
      • Liebhart F
      • et al.
      Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor improves risk prediction in patients with chronic heart failure.
      ,
      • Borné Y
      • Persson M
      • Melander O
      • Smith JG
      • Engström G.
      Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with incidence of heart failure but not atrial fibrillation.
      requires investigation.
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      References

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        • Hartsfield J
        • et al.
        Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and outcomes in patients with heart failure.
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