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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mobile Health Intervention in Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes

      ABSTRACT

      Background

      Mobile health (mHealth) platforms can affect health behaviors but have not been rigorously tested in randomized trials.

      Objectives

      We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a pragmatic mHealth intervention in patients with heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM).

      Methods

      We conducted a multicenter randomized trial in 187 patients with both HF and DM to assess an mHealth intervention to improve physical activity and medication adherence compared to usual care. The primary endpoint was change in mean daily step count from baseline through 3 months. Other outcomes included medication adherence, health-related quality of life and metabolomic profiling.

      Results

      The mHealth group had an increase in daily step count of 151 steps/day at 3 months, whereas the usual-care group had a decline of 162 steps/day (least squares mean between-group difference = 313 steps/day; 95% CI: 8 619; P = 0.044). Medication adherence, measured using the Voils Adherence Questionnaire, did not change from baseline to 3 months (LS-mean change –0.08 in mHealth vs –0.15 in usual care; P = 0.47). The mHealth group had an improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score compared to the usual-care group (LS-mean difference = 5.5 points, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.6; P = 0.009). Thirteen metabolites, primarily medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines, changed differently between treatment groups from baseline to 3 months (P < 0.05).

      Conclusions

      In patients with HF and DM, a 3-month mHealth intervention significantly improved daily physical activity, health-related quality of life and metabolomic markers of cardiovascular health but not medication adherence.

      Condensed Abstract

      Heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM) have overlapping biological and behavioral risk factors. We conducted a multicenter randomized, clinical trial in 187 patients with both HF (regardless of ejection fraction) and DM to assess whether an mHealth intervention could improve physical activity and medication adherence. The mHealth group had an increase in mean daily step count and quality of life but not in medication adherence. Medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines changed differently in treatment groups from baseline to 3 months (P < 0.05). These data have important implications for designing effective lifestyle interventions in HF and DM.

      Key Words

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