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Electrical Dyssynchrony in Cardiac Amyloidosis: Prevalence, Predictors, Clinical Correlates, and Outcomes

      Highlights

      • Electrical dyssynchrony occurs in 20% of patients with cardiac amyloidosis and is more common in elderly white patients with transthyretin amyloidosis and coronary artery disease.
      • QRS prolongation is not determined by the degree of left ventricular wall thickness.
      • Electrical dyssynchrony is associated with a higher New York Heart Association class, higher risk for permanent pacemaker implant and higher risk for all-cause mortality.

      Abstract

      Background

      Conduction-system involvement in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is common. The prevalence, clinical correlates and impact on outcome related to ventricular electrical dyssynchrony in CA remain insufficiently elucidated.

      Methods

      Data from a prospectively maintained registry of patients with CA diagnosed in the Cleveland Clinic’s amyloidosis clinic was used to determine the frequency of electrical dyssynchrony (defined as a QRS > 130 msec). The relation with the clinical profile and clinical outcome was assessed. To determine the impact of hypertrophy on QRS prolongation, a QRS-matched cohort without CA was used for comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

      Results

      A total of 1140 patients with CA (39% AL, 61% TTR) were evaluated, of whom 230 (20%) had electrical dyssynchrony. The type of conduction block was predominantly a right bundle branch block (BBB, 48%) followed by left BBB (35%) and intraventricular conduction delay (17%). Presence of transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), older age, male gender, white race, and coronary artery disease were independently (P< 0.05 for all) associated with electrical dyssynchrony, and patients were more commonly prescribed a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In ATTR-CA, specifically, every increase in ATTR-CA disease stage was associated with a 1.55-fold (1.23--1.95; P< 0.001) increased odds for electrical dyssynchrony. In a subset of patients with CA who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n = 41), left ventricular mass index was unrelated to the QRS duration (r = 0.187; P = 0.283) in CA, in contrast to a non-CA QRS-matched cohort (r = 0.397; P< 0.001). Patients with electrical dyssynchrony were more symptomatic at initial presentation, as illustrated by a higher New York Heart Association class (P= 0.041). During a median follow-up of 462 days (IQR:138--996 days), a higher proportion of patients with electrical dyssynchrony died from all-cause death (P= 0.037) or developed a permanent pacing indication (3% vs 10.4%; P< 0.001) during follow-up.

      Conclusion

      Electrical dyssynchrony is common in CA, especially in ATTR-CA, and is associated with worse functional status and clinical outcome. Given the high rate of permanent pacing indications at follow-up, additional studies are necessary to determine the best monitoring and pacing strategies in CA.

      Graphical abstract

      Key Words

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