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Peripheral Venous Pressure Measurements to Evaluate Congestion in Heart Failure


      • Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) can be measured easily in patients with heart failure.
      • PVP correlates strongly with right atrial pressure (RAP).
      • PVP predicted RAP better than conventional congestion assessments.
      • The predictive value of PVP should be evaluated in future studies.



      Accurate bedside assessment of congestion in the management of patients with heart failure remains challenging. As a continuous conduit of circulating fluid, systemic congestion represented by high right atrial pressure (RAP) may be reflected by peripheral venous pressure (PVP). We evaluated the reliability of PVP measurements for assessing congestion beyond conventional clinical assessments.

      Methods and Results

      We performed conventional congestion assessments and PVP measurements in 95 patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheterization. PVP was measured via the 22-gauge peripheral venous access placed in the upper extremity. The median RAP and PVP was 7 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5–11) mmHg and 9 (IQR: 7–12) mmHg, respectively, with a mean bias of 1.8 ± 2.6 mmHg. PVP exhibited a strong linear correlation with RAP (Spearman R = 0.81; P < 0.001). PVP demonstrated greater discriminatory power for both RAP ≤ 8 mmHg (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.91 [95% confidence interval: 0.85–0.97]; sensitivity: 75%; specificity: 87%) and RAP > 12 mmHg (AUC: 0.98 [0.95–1.00]; sensitivity: 88%; specificity: 95%) than edema, jugular venous pressure, pulmonary congestion on chest radiograph, B-type natriuretic peptide levels, and inferior vena cava diameter.


      PVP measured via peripheral venous access strongly correlates with invasively obtained RAP. PVP measurements may improve current bedside assessments of congestion.

      Graphical abstract

      Key Words

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