Diabetes Mellitus in Advanced Heart Failure



      Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased rates of mortality in patients with less severe (stage C) heart failure (HF). The prevalence of diabetes and its complications in advanced (stage D) HF and their contributions to mortality risk are unknown.

      Methods and Results

      We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of all adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had advanced HF between 2007 and 2017. Patients with diabetes were identified by using the criteria of the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set. Diabetes complications were captured by using the Diabetes Complications Severity Index. Of 936 patients with advanced HF, 338 (36.1%) had diabetes. Overall, median survival time after development of advanced HF was 13.1 (3.9–33.1) months; mortality did not vary by diabetes status (aHR 1.06, 95% CI 0.90–1.25; P = 0.45) or by glycated hemoglobin levels in those with diabetes (aHR 1.01 per 1% increase, 95% CI 0.93–1.10; P = 0.82). However, patients with diabetes and 4 (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 0.92–1.67) or 5–7 (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09–2.03) diabetes complications were at increased risk of mortality compared to those with ≤ 3 complications.


      More than one-third of patients with advanced HF have diabetes. In advanced HF, overall prognosis is poor, but we found no evidence that diabetes is associated with a significantly higher mortality risk.

      Key Words

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