The Traditional Endomyocardial Biopsy: Opportunities to Rethink Its Role as the Gold Standard

      The evolution in device optimization and technique modification to the endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) procedure over many decades has resulted in a relatively easy, straightforward, safe, and effective tool for pathological evaluation.
      • Konno S
      • Sakakibara S
      Endo-myocardial biopsy.
      • Richardson PJ
      King's endomyocardial bioptome.
      Early techniques for obtaining myocardial biopsies, including percutaneous needle biopsy of the left ventricle, catheter needle biopsy of the interventricular septum, and open thoracotomy, are now simplified to percutaneous biopsies via the right internal jugular vein to the right ventricle under local anesthesia.
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