Decompensated heart failure (HF) is associated with decline in renal function due partially to renal congestion,
1and optimal volume control by means of diuresis can prevent this. Also, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of congestive heart failure (HF) increases as a patient's renal function deteriorates. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the incidence of HF was 3-fold higher if the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with the reference group that had an eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2;
- Guglin M
- Rivero A
- Matar F
- Garcia M
Renal dysfunction in heart failure is due to congestion but not low output.
Clin Cardiol. 2011; 34: 113-116
2hence, it is expected that a patient with worse kidney functions would have higher diuretic requirements due to associated worse left ventricular function.
- Kottgen A
- Russell SD
- Loehr LR
- Crainiceanu CM
- Rosamond WD
- Chang PP
- et al.
Reduced kidney function as a risk factor for incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 18: 1307-1315
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- Renal dysfunction in heart failure is due to congestion but not low output.Clin Cardiol. 2011; 34: 113-116
- Reduced kidney function as a risk factor for incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 18: 1307-1315
- Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: a clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).Kidney Int. 2011; 80: 572-586
- Effects of exercise training on health status in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2009; 301: 1451-1459
- Testing for chronic kidney disease: a position statement from the National Kidney Foundation.Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 50: 169-180
Accepted: May 12, 2021
Received in revised form: April 28, 2021
Received: March 26, 2021
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