Background: Evaluation of fluid retention is an important issue in treatment of heart failure (HF) patients. However, the evaluation of fluid retention is difficult. Fluid retention could have an influence on circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythms. However, the association between abnormal circadian BP rhythms and fluid retention was not clearly understood. Method and Results: We enrolled 516 hospitalized HF patients and performed ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) and echocardiography. The mean age was 69 ± 13 yrs, and 62% was male. The riser BP pattern, extreme phenotype of abnormal circadian BP rhythms, was significantly associated with plasma renin activity (PRA) (Odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI [0.65–0.92], P < .01) (Figure). Conclusion: The riser BP pattern was significantly associated with PRA in HF patients. ABPM could be used for the evaluation of fluid retention.
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