Anemia is a major comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with HF. The prevalence of anemia is similar in patients with HF with reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. However, the association among age, gender, and impact of anemia in elderly patients with HF has not been completely unknown. Several factors, such as fluid retention and the blunted erythropoietin production, have been thought to cause anemia in HF. Despite several studies, the mechanism of anemia in HF is also totally unknown. Iron deficiency is known as one of the common causes of anemia in patients with HF. In this regard, we have previously reported that impaired intestinal iron transporters may contribute to the mechanism of anemia in HF using experimental HF models. In this session, we would like to discuss anemia in elderly patients with HF.
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