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Frailty and Perioperative Management of Non-Cardiac Surgery

      Frailty is a vulnerable state that is increasing the risk of disability and mortality when exposed to a stressor. In patients with heart failure (HF), frailty is common, and is attributable to worse their quality of life and prognosis. Thus, early detection and intervention of frailty is indispensable for the management of patients with HF. In non-cardiac surgery, reduced exercise torelance below 4 metabolic equivalents determine the perioperative morbidity and mortality, which indicated that the comprehensive perioperative assessment, including not only cardiac function, but also frailty, was required for all cardiologists. However, despite the clinical significance of frailty, the assessment and intervention for frail HF patients has not been established. Thus, in this symposium, we discuss the comprehensive perioperative management of non-cardiac surgery in frail HF patients.
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