Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program for heart failure (HF) patients has been established. 2016 ESC Guidelines for acute and chronic heart failure recommended CR program for the HF patients with reduced ejection fraction as Class1, evidence level A (Eur J Heart Fail 2016;18:891–975). In recent years, the efficacy of exercise training has also been confirmed in the patients with HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (Circ Heart Fail 2015;8:33–40). Besides, the reports regarding to CR program for the patients with arrhythmia were limited. The efficacy of exercise training for the patients with atrial fibrillation, such as rate control, improvement of exercise tolerance and QOL has been shown in the metaanalysis (Can J Cardiol 2013;29:1721). CR program is also recommended for the patients with implanted device (ICD/CRTD) and the efficacy of CR to decrease ICD shocks in patients with HF remains controversial (Euro J Prev cardiol 2012;19: 804). I will show our representative cases and discuss these points of view based on literature reviews in this symposium.
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